Some jurisdictions, notably the United States, but prevalent in many other countries, prevent parties from relitigating the facts on appeal, due to a history of unscrupulous lawyers deliberately reserving such issues in order to ambush each other in the appellate courts (the "invited error" problem). The idea is that it is more efficient to force all parties to fully litigate all relevant issues of fact before the trial court. Thus, a party who does not raise an issue of fact at the trial court level generally cannot raise it on appeal.
During discovery, both parties also may issue subpoenas to third-party witnesses if other individuals who are not part of the litigation nevertheless have information that may be necessary to the case.[12] For example, if you are suing someone for harassing you, you may need phone records to show how many times a day the person called you. To get those phone records, you would issue a subpoena to the phone company.

You won't win a lawsuit by simply striding into the courthouse and demanding money from your opponent. Each type oflegal claimhas a number of "elements" that you'll need to prove in order to win. For example, in a dispute over a contract, you must prove that a contract existed, that you held up your end of the bargain, that your opponent failed to meet his or her contractual obligations, and that you were harmed as a result. You'll want to plan ahead carefully to make sure that you can prove every element of your case -- or, if you are defending yourself against a lawsuit, to make sure that you can disprove at least one element of your opponent's case.
Produce and air television ads to showcase overarching messages and powerful messengers. One powerful way to generate earned media and drive the narrative while a court case is pending is by airing a television commercial highlighting a poignant story or a powerful messenger. During federal court consideration of lawsuits in the Mountain West, we aired a television spot featuring retired U.S. Senator Alan Simpson speaking about the western and Republican values that were important to him and how they led him to support the freedom to marry.  In Tennessee, we aired a spot featuring a gay Navy officer who had just served in Afghanistan and yet couldn’t marry his partner in his home state. In Texas, through our Texas for Marriage campaign, we featured the voices of non-gay police officers standing beside a gay colleague in support of his freedom to marry. For each of these, we did relatively small media buys, with the goal of getting  coverage of the spot on television news and in print.  Because the stories were both so powerful, for a relatively small investment in airing the spot, we received solid earned media coverage.  
Two of the most high-profile parents charged in the case are TV actress Lori Loughlin, known for her role as Aunt Becky on "Full House," and her husband, fashion designer Mossimo Giannulli, who once made exclusive apparel for Target stores. Authorities allege that they paid $500,000 in bribes to get their two daughters into USC as rowing recruits, though neither had ever participated in the sport.

Judge Hagedorn executed his campaign plan, delivered his message to the voters and withstood withering attacks from the left and the media. The left attacked him for starting a Christian school and for calling Planned Parenthood a “wicked organization.” Planned Parenthood went on to spend over $120,000 to try to defeat him. As a result, business groups, afraid of backlash, decided to stay out of this race, clearly intimidated by the most radical elements of the political left. Private polling showed Hagedorn down by nearly double digits and the political experts predicted a big loss for him. At one point the groups on the left were outspending those on the right by a 14-to-1 margin, as Eric Holder and liberals eyed a flip of the conservative leaning court.
It does seem crazy, but when you read the cases and the opinions of the judges, including Republican judges, that’s what they found in so many instances. It’s hard to tell whether the agencies knew that they were out on a limb with so many of these decisions and went ahead anyway, or didn’t have competent legal advice. Some experts, as the article said, thought that the failure of some agencies to “do their homework” as they suspended or delayed regulations, for example, showed that they were more interested in making announcements of deregulatory change than in the change itself, so the risk of a judge blocking their actions didn’t concern them all that much. Of course, the agency spokespeople deny that. But lawyers know, for example, that the law sometimes requires public notice and comment when making regulatory change. It’s not hard. It just slows things down. But if they fail to do it, it’s almost a certainty that a judge will object. These are not close calls. Now some of the cases, like the census case (the Commerce Department’s decision to add a citizenship question to the census), are much more complex than what I’m describing and raise deeper issues, which we continue to pursue.
Whether you have been sued, or are planning to sue, you can win your case at various stages of the litigation. You must understand the law as well as the applicable procedural rules. You will win a case if you can show that your opponent missed a filing deadline, has no legitimate cause of action, spoiled or destroyed evidence, or doesn’t have strong enough evidence to win at trial.
In most cases, the EEOC can file a lawsuit to enforce the law only after it investigates and makes a finding that there is reasonable cause to believe that discrimination has occurred, and is unable to resolve the matter through a process called "conciliation." The EEOC has discretion which charges to litigate if conciliation efforts are unsuccessful, and ultimately litigates a small percentage of all charges filed. When deciding whether to file a lawsuit, the EEOC considers factors such as the strength of the evidence, the issues in the case, and the wider impact the lawsuit could have on the EEOC's efforts to combat workplace discrimination. Congress also gave individuals the right to file a lawsuit in court.
Certain types of cases can only be heard by judges. In many cases, however,either party hasthe right to request that the case be heard by a jury. Most people representing themselves will do better in front of a judge than a jury -- jury trials are more complicated for a variety of reasons, and presenting your case to a judge will make your job quite a bit easier. However, if your opponent requests a jury trial, you will have to deal with a jury, whether you want one or not.
The Pinkerton National Detective Agency is a staple of Western fiction, reflecting its real role in the American Old West. (It was acquired in 1999 by Swedish security company Securitas AB.) However, the company asked Take-Two to pay royalties for the right to mention its agents in the latest Red Dead Redemption installment. After Take-Two’s lawsuit, Pinkerton also claimed Rockstar was damaging its reputation by portraying agents as “violent villains” and letting players kill them.
At a news conference Friday, Foreign Minister Wang Yi applauded Huawei and its chief financial officer for filing lawsuits. — Josh Chin And Chun Han Wong, WSJ, "Beijing Applauds Huawei for ‘Refusing to Be Victimized Like a Silent Lamb’," 8 Mar. 2019 Shandy Media, which runs three YouTube channels with more than 2.5 million subscribers across the channels, filed a lawsuit in June claiming a breach of contract over an advertising deal, ultimately costing the channels more than $100,000. — Julia Alexander, The Verge, "YouTube creators blindsided by major network’s collapse," 5 Dec. 2018 But where the feds chose to make peace, several states went to war and 19 states and the District of Columbia filed a lawsuit attempting to block the settlement and seeking a restraining order on the site's files. — David Grossman, Popular Mechanics, "Defense Distributed Is Selling 3D Printed Gun Files—Through the Mail," 28 Aug. 2018 Over the past few years, there have been many accusations, lawsuits, and settlements between indie designers and fast fashion conglomerates over alleged copyright infringements. — Alyssa Hardy, Teen Vogue, "Imitation In Fashion is a Huge Problem, But It's Probably Not Going Anywhere," 13 Mar. 2019 The appeal argues, as did the initial failed lawsuit, that, by using the SDSU name, Friends of SDSU violated state election law and education code. — Jennifer Van Grove, sandiegouniontribune.com, "SoccerCity continues legal action against SDSU West," 13 July 2018 A year after the inaugural Pokemon Go Fest in Chicago disappointed thousands of players and incited a class-action lawsuit, the festival is back for a second go-round. — Ally Marotti, chicagotribune.com, "Pokemon Go Fest is back and ready for the crowds after disappointing thousands last year," 12 July 2018 The lawsuit, filed in March, started with two families. — Keith Bierygolick, Cincinnati.com, "Addicted, abused and unable to count: a federal lawsuit about damaged kids in Warren County," 12 July 2018 The lawsuit, along with on-going Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests, has turned up hundreds of internal documents on the matter. — Lucas Laursen, Fortune, "Why Monsanto Could Soon Get Hit With a Flood of Cancer-Related Lawsuits," 11 July 2018
At the close of discovery, the parties may either pick a jury and then have a trial by jury or the case may proceed as a bench trial. A bench trial is only heard by the judge if the parties waive a jury trial or if the right to a jury trial is not guaranteed for their particular claim (such as those under equity in the U.S.) or for any lawsuits within their jurisdiction.
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