During the 18th and 19th centuries, it was common for lawyers to speak of bringing an "action" at law and a "suit" in equity. An example of that distinction survives today in the text of the Civil Rights Act of 1871. The fusion of common law and equity in England in the Judicature Acts of 1873 and 1875 led to the collapse of that distinction, so it became possible to speak of a "lawsuit." In the United States, the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (1938) abolished the distinction between actions at law and suits in equity in federal practice, in favor of a single form referred to as a "civil action."
If you find yourself up against a lawyer who won't stop rattling off legal citations or won't let you get a word in edgewise, you'll have to stand up for yourself. Tell the judge that you are representing yourself without a lawyer because you can't afford or justify the expense, and that you'll rely on the judge to apply the correct law and reach the right conclusions. Many judges will make an effort to keep the proceedings comprehensible to a self-represented party -- and will take steps to rein in an opposing lawyer who tries to take unfair advantage.
Work Contracts are often used when authorities are investigating a larger crime ring. Most commonly, they are used in drug cases where a person is asked to perform controlled buys of drugs to get a higher level person charged with a crime. Work contracts function similarly to substantial assistance deals in that they can either prevent charges or can minimize which charges are filed and the consequence of those charges.
A website needs data to be able to provide you with information. Your IP address is used so that the location where the information has to be sent can be identified. An IP address is not linked to a person, but to the location from which the Internet is accessed. If you access the Internet from your work, then that is the IP address of your company. If you are using your home computer, then generally your ISP will be given.
Residents use light rail during the afternoon hours in downtown Phoenix. Valley Metro CEO Scott Smith says he hopes to fix the light rail’s public image by implementing a new code of conduct that prohibits unruly behavior and gives light-rail security guards more flexibility to remove passengers. Valley Metro says there has been an increase in bad behavior on the light rail — actions that don’t rise to a criminal offense but do cause other passengers to feel unsafe or uncomfortable. Nick Oza/The Republic
Though the majority of lawsuits are settled before ever reaching a state of trial, they can still be very complicated to litigate. This is particularly true in federal systems, where a federal court may be applying state law (e.g. the Erie doctrine, for example in the United States), or vice versa. It is also possible for one state to apply the law of another in cases where additionally it may not be clear which level (or location) of court actually has jurisdiction over the claim or personal jurisdiction over the defendant, or whether the plaintiff has standing to participate in a lawsuit. About 98 percent of civil cases in the United States federal courts are resolved without a trial. Domestic courts are also often called upon to apply foreign law, or to act upon foreign defendants, over whom they may not even have the ability to even enforce a judgment if the defendant's assets are theoretically outside their reach.